Here is a paper where the authors used finite element modeling of the cervical spine to predict what structures have the potential for injury in a rear end impact. The interesting part is the forces applied is what many insurance companies would call a "low impact" collision. However, this study shows that areas of the spine can get damaged and head position most likely plays a larger role than car damage. The study looked at the shape the neck goes into at impact, which is a "S" shape, IVF diameter at impact, and ligament and facet capsular strain. The study . . .
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