"Five hundred digital sets of standing A-P lumbo-pelvic and lateral lumbar radiographic images were randomly selected according to a computer-generated list and analyzed retrospectively from a pool of approximately 1300 radiographic series in the RMIT University Teaching Clinic archives. All radiographs were de-identified except for date of birth, gender and date of examination. One hundred ninety nine sets of images were excluded due to the following reasons: evidence of trauma; congenital developmental abnormalities such as transitional vertebrae; visible evidence of orthopedic surgery; leg length discrepancy; scoliosis; isthmic spondylolisthesis; fractures; tumors or any condition other than . . .
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